Genetic makeup là gì


DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria


are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into lớn a form that cells can use.quý khách đang xem: Genetic makeup là gì

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), và thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, & more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building và maintaining an organism, similar khổng lồ the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order khổng lồ size words & sentences.

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DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, lớn size units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that size a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs & the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.

An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each str& of DNA in the double helix can serve sầu as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs khổng lồ have sầu an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.

DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs attached khổng lồ a sugar-phosphate backbone.


Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

For more information about DNA:

StatedClearly offers a video introduction lớn DNA & how it works.

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The New Genetics, a publication of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, part of the NIH, discusses the structure of DNA và how it was discovered.

A basic explanation & illustration of DNA can be found on Arizona State University"s "Ask a Biologist" trang web.

The Virtual Genetics Education Centre, created by the University of Leicester, offers additional information on DNA, genes, and chromosomes.

An overview of mitochondrial DNA is available from the Neuromuscular Disease Center at Washington University in St. Louis.

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Genetics trang chủ Reference has merged with Genetics trang chủ Reference nội dung now can be found in the "Genetics" section of Learn more

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users with questions about a personal health condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

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